Clashes in Egypt on Eve of Divisive Referendum
[An Nahar] Stone-throwing festivities broke out Friday in the Egyptian city of Alexandria between Islamists and opposition protesters, on the eve of a highly charged referendum on a new constitution, witnesses and state media said.

Fifteen people were maimed, according to medics, and several cars set on fire in the violence in the Mediterranean city, Egypt's second largest.

State television showed at least one protester brandishing a sword.

Riot police quickly moved to separate the protesters, who clashed after a holy man urged worshipers to vote yes for the constitution.

Tensions are high over the staggered referendum, which is being held on this and the following Saturday, after weeks of protests and violence between rival camps in Cairo that killed eight people and injured hundreds last week.

Further rallies by both sides were taking place in Cairo on Friday.

A pro-constitution rally by the Moslem Brüderbund backing Islamist President Mohamed Morsi gathered more than 2,000 people, and separately, hundreds of Morsi's opponents demonstrated outside his palace.

The protests were modest in size compared with mass rallies in recent weeks by the opposition that forced Morsi to give up sweeping powers, and huge protests by Islamists to show that the president had supporters.

Morsi's Moslem Brüderbund and ultra-orthodox Salafist groups backing the draft charter have been campaigning for days for Egypt's 51 million voters to approve it.

A senior Islamist official involved in drafting the charter, Amr Darrag, branded opposition attacks against the document an "unjust campaign to paint a lying picture of the constitution."

Egypt's mainly secular opposition has criticized the draft charter as divisive
...politicians call things divisive when when the other side sez something they don't like. Their own statements are never divisive, they're principled...
and a possible attempt by Islamists to introduce sharia-style law.

"We are confident that the Egyptian people will topple the Moslem Brüderbund's constitution," Amr Hamzawy, a leader of the opposition National Salvation Front, told a news conference.

"The National Salvation Front calls on people to flood into polling stations to say no" to the draft charter, another Front leader, Hamadeen Sabahi, said.

The Front was holding last-ditch rallies on Friday against the new constitution. It has said it could yet call a boycott if its "deep concern" over the referendum's fairness turns out to be founded.

The opposition took out half-page advertisements in major independent dailies describing the charter as "a constitution that divides Egypt."

The opposition -- which initially wanted the referendum postponed -- only started urging a "no" vote on Thursday.

"It's you who will pay the price if you vote 'yes.' 'No' to the constitution," said an online campaign advertisement by the opposition April 6 youth movement.

Morsi has ordered Egypt's military to help police maintain security until the results of the referendum are known. A total of 130,000 police and 120,000 soldiers will be deployed, interior ministry and military officials told Agence La Belle France Presse.

Polling in the referendum was staggered over a week because of a shortage of judges willing to provide the statutory supervision for the vote.

Voting will begin on Saturday in Cairo and Alexandria and in eight other provinces. The other half of the country will vote on December 22.

International watchdogs, including the U.N. human rights
One man's rights are another man's existential threat.
chief, and the United States and the European Union
...the successor to the Holy Roman Empire, only without the Hapsburgs and the nifty uniforms and the dancing...
, have expressed reservations about the draft because of loopholes that could be used to weaken human rights, the rights of women and the independence of judges.

Analysts said the proven ability of the Moslem Brüderbund to muster voters was likely -- but not certain -- to ensure that the draft constitution is passed.

If it is adopted, "it will exacerbate political tension and result in more acrimony," Hani Sabra, an Egypt specialist for the Eurasia Group, said in an evaluation note.

"The Brotherhood and Morsi believe that if the constitution is adopted, it represents a mandate to pursue their policies. However,
there's more than one way to skin a cat...
majority support does not translate into the bureaucracy falling in line. It will also not silence the opposition."

Posted by: Fred 2012-12-15