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#2 This is a tragedy. It was also inevitable. Spain's hundreds of years of dysfunctional rule (albeit probably no worse than native rule, pre-Spain) did not leave the Philippines equipped for self-rule. Incidents like this have their roots in America's abandonment of the Filipino people to their avaricious and incompetent (but eloquent) native elites in 1946, at which point the Philippines was perhaps the richest country in Southeast Asia, thanks to roughly fifty years of American rule.